Cultivating reform: 12 policy strategies for India's agricultural revival - Hindustan Times
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Cultivating reform: 12 policy strategies for India's agricultural revival

Jun 10, 2024 08:30 AM IST

Harmonising traditional wisdom with contemporary innovations through strategic policy changes can revitalise India's agricultural sector.

Proposing multi-faceted policy interventions to address farmer discontent, this piece explores 12 policy strategies for enhancing agricultural income, sustainability, and resilience in India.

Farmers' distress in India is a profound socio-economic issue deeply rooted in systemic challenges. (AP File Photo) PREMIUM
Farmers' distress in India is a profound socio-economic issue deeply rooted in systemic challenges. (AP File Photo)

Farmers' distress in India is a profound socio-economic issue deeply rooted in systemic challenges. Low crop prices, unpredictable weather patterns exacerbated by climate change, and rising input costs contribute to their financial instability. The lack of adequate infrastructure, timely access to credit, and comprehensive insurance schemes further aggravate their plight.

The dependence on middlemen for market access often leads to significant economic burdens. This distress manifests in widespread discontent, protests, and farmer suicides, highlighting the urgent need for holistic policy interventions to ensure sustainable livelihoods and socio-economic equity for India's farmers.

In the aftermath of the recent elections, the new government finds itself at a pivotal juncture, particularly concerning the growing distress and discontent among farmers in various states. The electoral mandate underscores the urgency for decisive and empathetic policy interventions to address the myriad challenges faced by the agricultural sector.

This piece proposes a series of strategic policy tweaks to reduce farmers' ire and foster sustainable growth in the agricultural landscape.

1. Implementing Fair and Transparent Price Mechanisms

The perpetual grievance of inadequate pricing for farm produce remains central to farmer discontent. Establishing fair and transparent price mechanisms is crucial. These measures would provide a more stable and predictable income, mitigating the financial uncertainty that plagues many farming households. Enhancing transparency in pricing can involve integrating digital platforms that provide real-time market prices, effectively reducing the exploitation by middlemen and ensuring that farmers are better informed about the true value of their produce.

2. Prioritising Agricultural Activities in the MGNREGA Scheme

MGNREGA has been a lifeline for rural employment but its potential to support agriculture remains underutilised. By prioritising agricultural activities within the scheme, the government can provide a dual benefit: assured income to farmers and additional support for farming-related tasks.

This could include water conservation, soil improvement, and infrastructure development, benefiting agricultural productivity and sustainability. Such integration would ensure that farmers have reliable income streams even during off-seasons, thus stabilising their financial situation and reducing migration to urban areas in search of work.

3. Investing in Rural Infrastructure

Modern and efficient rural infrastructure is a cornerstone of agricultural productivity. Post-harvest losses can be significantly reduced by improving irrigation systems, building storage facilities, and enhancing market linkages.

This can ensure that produce remains fresh and valuable when it reaches the market, thereby maximising farmer profits. Investment in rural infrastructure should also focus on developing transportation networks. Good road connectivity ensures farmers can quickly and easily transport their produce to markets, reducing spoilage and ensuring higher returns.

4. Enhancing Access to Credit and Insurance

Financial security is a major concern for farmers, who often face barriers in accessing credit and insurance. Expanding the reach of institutional credit and crop insurance schemes, particularly for small and marginal farmers, is imperative.

Simplifying loan procedures and ensuring the timely disbursement of insurance claims can provide critical support, enabling farmers to invest in quality inputs and innovative farming techniques. Offering targeted financial products, such as low-interest loans and flexible repayment schedules, can also boost the confidence of farmers to take calculated risks and invest in higher-yielding practices.

5. Empowering Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs)

FPOs can revolutionise the agricultural landscape by giving farmers collective bargaining power and market access. Strengthening and expanding the reach of FPOs can empower farmers to negotiate better prices, access quality inputs at lower costs, and enhance their overall competitive edge in the market.

The government should provide these organisations with technical assistance, capacity-building programs, and financial support. Facilitating partnerships between FPOs and private enterprises can open new avenues for investment, innovation, and market expansion.

6. Developing Pest and Disease-Resistant Crop Varieties

The agricultural sector relies heavily on pesticides, which can be cost-prohibitive and environmentally damaging. The development and dissemination of pest and disease-resistant crop varieties are critical.

Investing in agricultural research and development to produce resilient crops can significantly reduce dependency on chemical inputs, lower production costs, and minimise the risk of crop failure. Collaborations with agricultural universities and international research bodies can fast-track the introduction of these varieties, ensuring that farmers have access to the best possible pest and disease management solutions.

7. Facilitating Diversification and Value Addition

Diversification is a powerful tool to enhance farmer resilience and income. Encouraging the cultivation of high-value crops, livestock rearing, and non-farm activities can provide multiple income streams.

Supporting value-added products through training, infrastructure, and market linkages can further elevate farmers' earning potential. Promoting cottage industries and processing units at the village level can ensure that farmers benefit from the entire value chain, from raw produce to final consumer products. This not only increases income but also creates local employment opportunities.

8. Strengthening Extension Services and Knowledge Sharing

Knowledge is power, especially in agriculture. Strengthening extension services can empower farmers with the latest agronomic practices, market information, and technological interventions. Training extension workers, establishing digital platforms for real-time information dissemination, and promoting peer-to-peer learning networks can democratise agricultural knowledge, fostering innovation and productivity.

Digital platforms providing tutorials, weather updates, market prices, and pest alerts can be revolutionary. Tailored local language content can ensure accessibility and understanding, leading to better on-ground practices.

9. Developing and Distributing Suitable Agricultural Implements

Farm mechanisation tailored to the needs of small farmers can significantly enhance productivity and reduce physical strain. Developing and distributing suitable agricultural implements, such as small-scale tractors, planting tools, and efficient harvesting devices, can transform the farming landscape.

Subsidised equipment leasing programs, government grants, and cooperative ownership models can ensure that even the smallest farmers can access modern agricultural tools, increasing efficiency and output.

10. Promoting Agroecology and Sustainable Practices

Sustainable farming practices are essential for long-term agricultural health. Promoting agroecology, which emphasises diversity, resilience, and ecological balance, can improve soil health, reduce input costs, and improve climate resilience. Incentives for organic farming, agroforestry, and integrated pest management can reduce chemical dependency and ensure healthier, more sustainable agricultural systems. Community-based agroecology projects can also educate and encourage farmers to adopt eco-friendly practices, contributing to environmental conservation and sustainability.

11. Encouraging Vegetable and Horticulture Development

Promoting vegetable and horticulture development, alongside barren land development through initiatives like Jatropha plantation, can significantly enhance agricultural diversification. These initiatives provide alternative income sources and fully utilise land resources.

Government support for cooperative nurseries and community gardens can further promote these activities, ensuring farmers can access quality seeds, training, and market connections.

12. Enhancing Collaboration Between Research Institutions and Policymakers

Effective collaboration between research institutions and policymakers ensures that innovative agricultural solutions are translated into actionable policies. Bridging the gap between academic research and practical application can lead to more effective and scalable interventions.

Establishing farmer-researcher forums, engaging in participatory research, and promoting pilot projects can validate new technologies and approaches, ensuring they meet the needs of farmers and are readily adopted on the ground.

Collaborative Strategies for Revitalising India's Agricultural Sector

Engaging agricultural economists, policy analysts, and farming stakeholders in constructive dialogue will provide nuanced insights into addressing farmer issues in Maharashtra, Punjab, and beyond. By prioritising inclusive, evidence-based policy interventions, the new government can effectively address the farmers' grievances and pave the way for a thriving, sustainable agricultural sector. Through thoughtful and collaborative efforts, India can ensure its farmers survive and flourish in an evolving economic landscape. Harmonising traditional wisdom with contemporary innovations through strategic policy changes can revitalise India's agricultural sector.

Anjal Prakash is a Clinical Associate Professor (Research) at Bharti Institute of Public Policy, Indian School of Business (ISB). He teaches sustainability at ISB and contributes to IPCC reports.

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